Detection of Resistance Genes in Superbugs

The use of genotypic assays is an effective and direct method to detect pathogen resistance. Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus spp., vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus spp., and multi-antibiotic resistance in Mycobacterium spp. have been successfully evaluated by various genetic techniques. Genotypic approaches are usually based on the detection of resistance genes and thus provide a rapid, direct and sensitive assessment of resistance.

Rapid and accurate resistance testing is a critical need to address the escalating number of superbug infections. Ace Therapeutics offers PCR, DNA microarrays and DNA microarrays as well as other genotyping technologies for the detection of antibiotic resistance genes. We are committed to helping you perform the most efficient and rapid molecular analysis of bacterial resistance genes.

Resistance Genes in Superbugs

Bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics through a variety of mechanisms, and these resistance phenotypes are achieved primarily through genetic mutations. This alters existing bacterial proteins, by transferring and acquiring new genetic material between bacteria of the same or different species. Some of the most frequently detected antibiotic resistance genes and their respective antibiotic classes are, aminoglycoside antibiotics (npmA, rmtA, rmtB, rmtC, rmtD), β-lactam antibiotics (ESBL, AmpC), chloramphenicol (catA, catB, floR), quinolone (qnrA, qnrB, qnrS), etc.

Horizontal transfer of drug resistance genes.Fig. 1 Horizontal transfer of drug resistance genes. (Jian Z, et al., 2021)

Our Detection Services of Resistance Genes

We offer genotypic techniques to detect drug resistance genes that can provide new power for antibiotic resistance detection in bacteria.

  • PCR technology. This is one of the effective tools we offer for quantitative analysis of bacterial drug resistance genes. The target DNA molecules are extracted and amplified, and the presence or absence of drug resistance genes at the amplification target can be confirmed by DNA sequencing analysis methods such as electrophoresis, southern blotting, and DNA fingerprinting.
  • DNA microarray/chip technology. This is a promising technique for screening drug resistance genes. Resistance is identified by specific hybridization of a labeled probe to a target.
  • Whole-genome sequencing technology. Whole genome sequencing can be used to determine the presence of known resistance genes and identify novel resistance mechanisms. We offer sequencing as well as bioinformatics tools to provide solutions for high-throughput WGS analysis.

In the face of the constant evolution of new resistance genes in bacteria, it is critical to help identify new targets and study them. Our work is focused on identifying antibiotic resistance genes and tracking their prevalence in samples. Therefore, we offer a variety of flexible, high-throughput systems to monitor gene expression in a variety of sample types.

Target Gene Category

Our assay service can be used in numerous studies to analyze and track antibiotic resistance genes in a variety of samples. Our assays can include a wide range of genetic targets and can be run on a variety of sample types including environmental samples, biological samples, and more. Our technology contributes to future studies of antibiotic resistance in your drug-resistant bacteria. The target resistance we target can include,

  • Tetracycline resistance
  • Trimethoprim resistance
  • Vancomycin resistance
  • Aminoglycoside resistance
  • Amphenicol resistance
  • Beta-lactamase resistance
  • Fluoroquinolone resistance
  • Sulfonamide resistance
  • Multidrug resistance

To address the growing problem of superbugs, we must understand bacterial drug resistance genes. Ace Therapeutics has the assay technology to meet your bacterial bioinformatics research requirements, for more information, please contact us.


  1. Jian Z, et al. Antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria: Occurrence, spread, and control. Journal of Basic Microbiology, 2021, 61(12): 1049-1070.
  2. Khan Z A, et al. Current and Emerging Methods of Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing. Diagnostics, 2019; 9(2):49.
All of our services are intended for preclinical research use only and cannot be used to diagnose, treat or manage patients.
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