In Vivo Studies of Phage Against Superbugs

Although in vitro studies have provided valuable information on the potential use of phages, it is clear that these assessment data are insufficient to extrapolate the safety and efficacy of complex human systems. Therefore, advanced testing of relevant in vivo infection models remains critical for the development of human clinical applications. Ace Therapeutics offers in vivo animal testing of phages against superbugs, which provides researchers with information on the safety, toxicology, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of phages from animal models.

In Vivo Phage Characterization

Good preclinical data from in vivo work are useful to provide a rationale for phage entry into human trials. Generally, animal studies are performed prior to clinical application. In vivo characterization of phages has been performed for many years in local or systemic infection models. These studies can be performed on a variety of animal species including mice, guinea pigs, rabbits, insects, etc. Information on the safety and efficacy of phage therapies for bacterial infections is available and critical to the success of clinical trials.

Fig. 1 In vivo assessment of the potential of phage prophylaxis for multi-strain E. coli infections in G. mellonella larva models.Fig. 1 In vivo assessment of the potential of phage prophylaxis for multi-strain E. coli infections in G. mellonella larva models. (Kaczorowska J, et al., 2021)

Our In Vivo Study Services

Animal models of bacterial infection exhibit symptoms of disease similar to those of humans. Therefore, we could obtain information from these models regarding phage safety, efficacy, toxicology, and pharmacokinetics. Our service is designed to effectively evaluate the activity of therapeutic phages in animals and other models of infection.

The choice of animal model depends on the disease and the way it mimics human infection in a particular animal, so we offer and customize several animals for phage therapy applications.

  • Wound infection model in diabetic mice
  • G. mellonella larva model
  • Intra-abdominal MRSA infection model in mice
  • Wound model in rats
  • Acute pneumonia mouse infection model
  • Other models

We perform various data assays through in vivo animal experiments, specifically including, but not limited to, the following assay services. The data we provide from biologically relevant models will inform the translation of potential therapeutic phage products into human clinical applications.

  • Histopathological examination
  • Immunohistochemical analysis
  • Toxicological studies
  • Pharmacokinetic studies
  • Efficacy evaluation

Our Advantages

  • We can develop inexpensive invertebrate models whose cells are so similar to human cells that comparable impact assessments and extrapolations can be made.
  • We ensure the exclusion of various potential contaminants that could interfere with phage activity, use highly purified preparations, and determine the best delivery method to exclude interference.
  • Throughout the service, we guide the animal through the various important parameters of phage testing to ensure that the experiment runs smoothly.

Why Choose Us

  • Ability to perform fast and efficient in vivo collaborative studies
  • Fast and efficient access to animal models
  • Development and optimization of shared protocols and procedures
  • Significant reduction in the number of animals used and improvements in animal procedures
  • Improve collaboration and productivity through shared resources

Please contact us if you need preclinical assessment services of phages for treatment of superbug infection.


  1. Kaczorowska J, et al. In Vitro and In Vivo Assessment of the Potential of Escherichia coli Phages to Treat Infections and Survive Gastric Conditions. Microorganisms, 2021, 9, 1869.
All of our services are intended for preclinical research use only and cannot be used to diagnose, treat or manage patients.
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