Preclinical Assessment of Phages Against Superbugs

Ace Therapeutics has years of experience in the preclinical assessment of phage drugs and can help your team develop new superbug therapies. Our experienced team of experts can help you develop strategies and protocols, and our in-house testing facilities are at your disposal to perform the critical studies needed to advance your program.

Preclinical Data on Phage Therapy in Humans

The ability of phages to kill bacteria with species-specific precision makes them attractive for therapeutic purposes. The increase in multi-drug resistance and the associated adverse effects have prompted an urgent need for innovative anti-infective drugs. Target-specific phages can kill antibiotic-resistant strains and thus may serve as viable alternatives.

In order to establish basic research and the use of phages, we need information on phage safety and efficacy to drive clinical trials. These preclinical studies can generate reliable preclinical data, including in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo studies related to phages. These are valuable for the translation of phage potential.

Fig. 1 In vivo assessment of the potential of phage prophylaxis for multi-strain E. coli infections in G. mellonella larva models.Fig. 1 In vivo assessment of the potential of phage prophylaxis for multi-strain E. coli infections in G. mellonella larva models. (Nale J Y and Clokie M R, 2021)

Our Preclinical Assessment Services

Animal models of bacterial infection exhibit symptoms of disease similar to those of humans. Therefore, we could obtain information from these models regarding phage safety, efficacy, toxicology, and pharmacokinetics. Our service is designed to effectively evaluate the activity of therapeutic phages in animals and other models of infection.

The choice of animal model depends on the disease and the way it mimics human infection in a particular animal, so we offer and customize several animals for phage therapy applications.

In Vitro Studies

After a potential new phage therapy has been designed and identified, the essential characteristics or parameters of the phage are understood and its efficacy in the context of the infection of interest must be determined. This can usually be done by testing in an appropriate cell line or in vitro infection model to determine if the desired efficacy can be obtained.

We offer in vitro evaluation services for phage therapeutics against superbugs, providing and customizing optimal bacterial infection models for phage efficacy testing.

In Vivo Studies

Although in vitro studies have provided valuable information on the potential use of phages, it is clear that these assessment data are insufficient to extrapolate the safety and efficacy of complex human systems. Therefore, advanced testing of relevant in vivo infection models remains critical for the development of human clinical applications.

We offer in vivo animal testing of phages against superbugs, which provides researchers with information on the safety, toxicology, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of phages from animal models.

Our Facilities

  • Maintenance of common animal infection models in a shared-use central facility
  • Expertise in the generation and maintenance of biofilms, cell lines, ex vivo models, and animal infection models
  • Highly trained technical staff with expertise in performing common preclinical procedures
  • Expertise and resources to develop novel animal models, procedures, and techniques

You can contact one of our specialists or learn more about our services and we will be happy to help you complete your application. Please contact us if you need preclinical assessment services of phages for treatment of superbug infection.


  1. Nale J Y and Clokie M R. Preclinical data and safety assessment of phage therapy in humans. Curr Opin Biotechnol, 2021; 68: 310-317.
All of our services are intended for preclinical research use only and cannot be used to diagnose, treat or manage patients.
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